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1 ABOUT ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
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Section coordination by J. Ballé-Béganton11, M. Philippe11 and D. Bailly11 based on written contributions from R. Mongruel5, N. Beaumont8, T. Hooper8, H. Levrel5, P. Somerfield8, E. Thiébaut10, M. Charles1, L. Friedrich9 and W. Dodds9

Bullet point blue1.1 WHY an ecosystem services approach in marine and coastal areas?
Bullet point blue   Title level 21.1.1 Global biodiversity decline
Bullet point blue   Title level 21.1.2 Nature’s worth
Bullet point blue   Title level 21.1.3 Biodiversity, sustainable development and ecosystem services: keywords in governance

Bullet point blue1.2 WHAT is the Ecosystem Services Approach?
Bullet point blue   Title level 21.2.1 Ecosystem services assessment and valuation
Bullet point blue   Title level 21.2.2 What are ecosystem services?
Bullet point blue   Title level 21.2.3 Marine ecosystem services
Bullet point blue   Title level 31.2.3.1 Marine supporting services
Bullet point blue   Title level 31.2.3.2 Marine regulating services
Bullet point blue   Title level 31.2.3.3 Marine provisioning services
Bullet point blue   Title level 31.2.3.4 Marine cultural services
Bullet point blue   Title level 21.2.4 Drivers of change of ecosystem services
Bullet point blue   Title level 21.2.5 Managing pressures and not ecosystem services

Bullet point blue1.3 The HOW: from academic model to practical management tool
Bullet point blue   Title level 21.3.1 Academic milestones of the Ecosystem Services Approach
Bullet point blue   Title level 21.3.2 Existing ecosystem services frameworks
Bullet point blue   Title level 21.3.3 Is ecosystem services valuation all about money?
Bullet point blue   Title level 21.3.4 Ecosystem service assessment in marine management around the world
Bullet point blue   Title level 21.3.5 Limitations

2 SET THE FRAMEWORK OF THE ASSESSMENT AND THE VALUATION
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Section coordination by M. Philippe11, J. Ballé-Béganton11 and D. Bailly11 based on written contributions from R. Mongruel5, N. Beaumont8, T. Hooper8, H. Levrel5, P. Somerfield8, E. Thiébaut10, M. Charles1, L. Pendleton11, L. Friedrich9 and W. Dodds9

Bullet point blue2.1 Why, who and what
Bullet point blue   Title level 22.1.1 A social process
Bullet point blue   Title level 22.1.2 Work in partnership
Bullet point blue   Title level 22.1.3 Stakeholder engagement

Bullet point blue2.2 Visualisation and communication

Bullet point blue2.3 Running a structured decision making process: the triage process
Bullet point blue   Title level 22.3.1 Preliminary to triage: is an ecosystem services assessment the most appropriate approach?
Bullet point blue   Title level 22.3.2 The three sequences of triage
Bullet point blue   Title level 32.3.2.1 Triage sequence 1.1: For which purposes is a valuation of marine ecosystem services needed in the area?
Bullet point blue   Title level 32.3.2.2 Triage sequence 1.2: What are the most important policy issues in relation to marine ecosystem services in the area?
Bullet point blue   Title level 32.3.2.3 Triage sequence 1.3: What parts of the marine social-ecological system are concerned by these policy issues?
Bullet point blue   Title level 32.3.2.4 Triage sequence 2.1: What is the potential for the status or value of ecological functions and services to change?
Bullet point blue   Title level 32.3.2.5 Triage sequence 2.2: How does the envisaged management intervention influence these changes?
Bullet point blue   Title level 32.3.2.6 Triage sequence 2.3: Which other factors do affect the status or value of the considered functions and services?
Bullet point blue   Title level 32.3.2.7 Triage sequence 3.1: Which metrics would be meaningful as regards the factors of change to be considered?
Bullet point blue   Title level 32.3.2.8 Triage sequence 3.2: Which methods and tools could be used to obtain such metrics?
Bullet point blue   Title level 32.3.2.9 Triage sequence 3.3: Is the envisaged valuation method feasible?

Bullet point blue2.4 Recommendations
Bullet point blue   Title level 22.4.1 Recommendations for the stakeholder engagement
Bullet point blue   Title level 22.4.2 Recommendations for implementing the process with the triage
Bullet point blue   Title level 22.4.3 Recommendations for the assessment framework

3 ASSESS AND VALUE
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Section coordination by J. Ballé-Béganton11, M. Philippe11 and D. Bailly11 based on written contributions from R. Mongruel5, N. Beaumont8, T. Hooper8, H. Levrel5, P. Somerfield8, E. Thiébaut10 and M. Charles1

Bullet point blue3.1 Building a common language: definitions and nomenclatures
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.1.1 Natural habitats, ecological functions and marine ecosystem services
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.1.2 Do natural habitat, ecological functions and ecosystem services always match?
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.1.3 Disentangling complexity of the relationships between ecosystems, their features and the provided services
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.1.4 Main categories of services provided by marine ecosystems
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.1.5 Nomenclatures for stakeholders and management bodies
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.1.6 Indicators for the assessment of marine ecosystem services
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.1.7 Concept of values

Bullet point blue3.2 List of assessment and valuation methods

Bullet point blue3.3 Ecological assessment
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.3.1 Habitat mapping: the EUNIS nomenclature
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.3.2 Habitats-functions-services relationship assessment
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.3.3 Sensitivity assessment

Bullet point blue3.4 Social science methods
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.4.1 Surveys, interviews and focus groups
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.4.2 Multi-criteria analysis
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.4.3 Behavioural observation

Bullet point blue3.5 Economic methods
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.5.1 Revealed preference: Travel costs method
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.5.2 Revealed preferences: Hedonic pricing
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.5.3 Revealed preferences: Averting-behaviour methods
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.5.4 Stated preferences: Contingent valuation and Contingent behaviour
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.5.5 Stated preferences: Choice experiment
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.5.6 Stated preferences: Benefit transfer
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.5.7 Ecosystem accounting

Bullet point blue3.6 Civic valuation

Bullet point blue3.7 Ecosystem benefit indicators and biophysical ranking methods

Bullet point blue3.8 Methods using cost as a proxy for value

Bullet point blue3.9 Cross-methods
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.9.1 Natural capital project InVEST
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.9.2 Bayesian belief networks
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.9.3 System dynamic modelling
Bullet point blue   Title level 23.9.4 Companion modelling for common pool resources

4 BUILD SCENARIOS
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Section coordination by M. Philippe11, J. Ballé-Béganton11 and D. Bailly11 based on written contributions from J. Herry7, W. Dodds9, M. Philippe11 and A. Winder3

Bullet point blue4.1 Scenarios, a tool to anticipate and consider the future
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.1.1 What do we mean by “scenarios”?
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.1.2 Different types of scenarios
Bullet point blue   Title level 34.1.2.1 Exploratory scenario: What might happen?
Bullet point blue   Title level 34.1.2.2 Normative scenario: How can a specific target be reached?
Bullet point blue   Title level 34.1.2.3 Predictive scenario: what will happen?

Bullet point blue4.2 Building scenarios, why and how?
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.2.1 PHASE 1: Illustrating the system being studied including natural processes and human activities
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.2.2 PHASE 2: Identifying drivers of change in the case study ecosystem
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.2.3 PHASE 3: Establishing the key variables and associating them to explore and build the scenarios
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.2.4 PHASE 4: Selecting and developing the format of the scenarios with stakeholders
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.2.5 PHASE 5: Using scenarios to create discussion on management options
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.2.6 In brief: List of tools that can be used for each phase of the scenario building process

Bullet point blue4.3 Toolbox for scenario building
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.3.1 Interviews with stakeholders and/or experts
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.3.2 Stakeholders matrix
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.3.3 BRAINSTORMING
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.3.4 DELPHI
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.3.5 REGNIER’S ABACUS
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.3.6 TOOLS TO REPRESENT THE SYSTEM, PRESENT AND COMBINE INFORMATION, SYNTHESIZE KNOWLEDGE
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.3.7 ARDI METHOD
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.3.8 DPSIR
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.3.9 PESTLE AND MATRICES TO CLASSIFY THE POSSIBLE CHANGES
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.3.10 BAYESIAN ANALYSIS
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.3.11 BACKCASTING
Bullet point blue   Title level 24.3.12 INVEST



5 CASE STUDIES
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Bullet point blue5.1 NORTH DEVON
Section coordination by J. Ballé-Béganton11, M. Philippe11 and D. Bailly11 based on written contributions from O. Langmead6, T. Hooper8, C. Griffiths6, N. Beaumont8 and S. Guilbert3

Bullet point blue   Title level 25.1.1 Site description
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.1.2 Focus of study
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.1.3 Key stakeholders and their involvement
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.1.4 Method to determine which ecosystem services were the focus
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.1.5 Ecosystem Services Assessment method and key results
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.1.6 Scenario process
Bullet point blue   Title level 35.1.6.1 Scenario phase 1: Characterising the North Devon Case Study area
Bullet point blue   Title level 35.1.6.2 Scenario phase 2: Identifying the scenario themes using stakeholder consultation
Bullet point blue   Title level 45.1.6.2.1 Final scenario 1: Marine Conservation Zone designation
Bullet point blue   Title level 45.1.6.2.2 Final scenario 2: Aggregate extraction
Bullet point blue   Title level 45.1.6.2.3 Final scenario 3: Aquaculture development
Bullet point blue   Title level 35.1.6.3 Scenario phase 3: Establishing the key variables and developing pressure maps
Bullet point blue   Title level 35.1.6.4 Scenario phase 4: Developing and parameterizing the socio-ecological model
Bullet point blue   Title level 35.1.6.5 Scenario phase 5: Scenario modelling
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.1.7 Conclusions

Bullet point blue5.2 POOLE HARBOUR
Section coordination by J. Ballé-Béganton11, M. Philippe11 and D. Bailly11 based on written contributions from A. Brocklesby4, K. Buchan4, W. Dodds9, T. Hooper8, L. Friedrich9, N. Beaumont8 and C. Griffiths6

Bullet point blue   Title level 25.2.1 Site Description
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.2.2 Main Activities and Uses
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.2.3 Governance Arrangements
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.2.4 Key stakeholders and their involvement
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.2.5 Ecosystem Services Assessment
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.2.6 Methods and Key Results

Bullet point blue5.3 PLYMOUTH SOUND TO FOWEY
Section coordination by J. Ballé-Béganton11, M. Philippe11 and D. Bailly11 based on written contributions from N. Smith9, P. Hoskin2, W. Dodds9, T. Hooper8, L. Friedrich9, N. Beaumont8 and C. Griffiths6

Bullet point blue   Title level 25.3.1 Site description
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.3.2 Main Activities and Uses
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.3.3 Governance Arrangements
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.3.4 Key stakeholders and their involvement
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.3.5 Selecting the Ecosystem Services Assessment Focus
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.3.6 Scenarios for Assessment
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.3.7 Methods and Results
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.3.8 Governance mapping to support the assessment


Bullet point blue5.4 GOLFE NORMAND-BRETON
Section coordination by J. Ballé-Béganton11, M. Philippe11 and D. Bailly11 based on written contributions from K. Dedieu1, F. Morisseau1, R. Mongruel5, E. Thiébaut10, J.Schoenn10, P. Cabral11, F. Daurès5, E. Foucher5, JC. Martin5, P. Le Mao5, C. Rollet5, H. Levrel5 and S. Girard5

Bullet point blue   Title level 25.4.1 Site description
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.4.2 Main Activities and Uses
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.4.3 Governance Arrangements
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.4.4 Aims of the Ecosystem Services Assessment
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.4.5 Ecosystem Services Assessment Methods and Results
Bullet point blue   Title level 45.4.5.1 Linking Habitats, Functions and Services
Bullet point blue   Title level 45.4.5.2 Golfe Normand-Breton: InVEST
Bullet point blue   Title level 45.4.5.3 Golfe Normand-Breton: Ecosystem accounting
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.4.6 Links between the Ecosystem Services Assessment and the scenarios
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.4.7 Aims of scenario building process?
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.4.8 Detailed description of the scenarios approach
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.4.9 Scenario description
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.4.10 Use of scenarios outputs for management
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.4.11 Scenarios experience sharing

Bullet point blue5.5 PARC NATUREL MARIN D'IROISE
Section coordination by J. Ballé-Béganton11, M. Philippe11 and D. Bailly11 based on written contributions from A. Vanhoutte-Brunier1, A. Marzin5, M. Laurans5, O. Guyader5, D. Davoult10, R. Mongruel5, P. Le Nilliot1and D. Vaschalde1

Bullet point blue   Title level 25.5.1 Site description
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.5.2 Main activities and uses
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.5.3 Governance Arrangements
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.5.4 Aims of the Ecosystem Services Assessment
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.5.5 Ecosystem Services Assessment Methods
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.5.6 Links between the Ecosystem Services Assessment and the scenarios
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.5.7 Aims of scenario building process?
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.5.8 Detailed description of the scenarios approach
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.5.9 Advantages and disadvantages of the scenarios methods used?
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.5.10 Scenario description
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.5.11 Use of scenarios outputs for management
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.5.12 Scenarios experience sharing

Bullet point blue5.6 PARC NATUREL REGIONAL DU GOLFE DU MORBIHAN
Section coordination by J. Ballé-Béganton11, M. Philippe11 and D. Bailly11 based on written contributions from J. Herry7, M. Philippe11, J. Ballé-Béganton11, R. Pasco7, B. Angst11, M. Urien7, D. Bailly11, M. Cassé7

Bullet point blue   Title level 25.6.1 Site description
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.6.2 Main Activities and Uses
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.6.3 Governance Arrangements
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.6.4 Key stakeholders and their involvement
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.6.5 Aims of the Ecosystem Services Assessment
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.6.6 Ecosystem Services Assessment Methods and Results
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.6.7 Links between the Ecosystem Services Assessment and the scenarios
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.6.8 Aims of the scenario building process?
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.6.9 Detailed description of the scenarios approach
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.6.10 Scenario description
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.6.11 Use of scenarios outputs for management
Bullet point blue   Title level 25.6.12 Scenarios experience sharing


1 Agence des Aires Marines Protégées
2 Cornwall Council
3 Devon County Council / Devon Maritime Forum
4 Dorset County Council/Dorset Coast Forum
5 Ifremer
6 Marine Biological Association of the UK
7 Parc Naturel Régional du Golfe du Morbihan
8 Plymouth Marine Laboratory
9 Plymouth University
10 Station Biologique de Roscoff – Université Pierre et Marie Curie
11 Université de Bretagne Occidentale – Brest/ UMR AMURE

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